The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard in , and it has been developed by other scholars during. by Lysgaard in ; more recently, however, its applicability to research in the The U-curve model was first described by Lysgaard in his study of. “Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting the United States.” by Sverre Lysgaard, International Social.
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The degree of culture shock is closely related to the familiarity — or unfamiliarity — of the new environment, which means that movements between similar cultures will reduce the amount of stress considerably. It awakens the sojourner from the complacency of the holiday stage and forces him or her to confront fundamental differences in cultural norms and values. They belong to the group of “Euro-Europeans” defined by the Danish anthropologists Anne Knudsen and Lizanne Wilken as “the employees of international companies, supernational organisations and news agencies, exchange students, sojourning business men and women, researchers working in the European research institutions — and anyone else, who happens to live and work in another European country” Knudsen and Wilken Some had already been offered jobs or studentships in Denmark, which determined their move, while others were invited by Danish friends or partners.
U-curve — Moniviestin
Using Lysgaard as their theoretical basis, Iris Varner and Linda Beamer explain culture shock in terms of four stages: Ideally we like to think of interviews in terms of a dialogue between the interviewer, who is open-minded about the experiences conveyed, and the interviewee, who narrates the stories as they occurred — not what he or she would have liked to happen, or what he or she thinks the interviewer would want to hear about a given situation.
With regard to cultural assimilation, an early concern for many sojourners is the establishment of a social network. At this stage, they reflect, businesses may worry “that the employee, who is now at home in another culture, does not totally represent them anymore.
First of all, I see the main difference between sojourners and immigrants as a difference in terms of the intensity of the intercultural encounter rather than a difference in the nature of the experience itself. I think it is important to realise that cultural assimilation cannot be achieved within a year or two, but requires a longer time-span. There are a number of similarities between the process I describe and 19955 cultural adaptation model presented by the theorists.
First of all, my interviews have left me with the impression that acculturation is a very lengthy process. When comparing Scotland to Denmark, the expatriates describe their home country as an old-fashioned, masculine culture and generally prefer a more equal relationship between man and woman. I do not think the sense of culture shock will ever disappear completely.
In “Adjustment in a foreign society”, Lysgaard describes his model of cultural adaptation in the following words:. The last stage of integration is described by Beamer and Varner as “going native”. As they gain an inside perspective on their new culture, the frustration felt by sojourners is gradually reduced until it reaches a minimum.
They are highly significant to the present discussion, however, because they reveal that no cultural values are static. After an initial honeymoon phase, during which work colleagues had accommodated Fiona and her husband Andrew in every possible way, the couple was left to themselves. Stella Ting-Toomey distinguishes between sojourners and immigrants, and I think she is right to point out the differences between the two groups Ting-Toomey In other words, immigration within the same cultural region — i.
Adding to such worries the social stigma attached to welfare in many parts of the world, it is hardly surprising if recent immigrants are overwhelmed by frustration rather than excitement.
In a cultural No Man’s Land –
Navigation Introduction to Intercultural Communication. Although their structural assimilation was fast, the Scots agreed that adaptation only really took off after the lywgaard shock endured during the second year, and that their cultural adjustment never really ended. Others would draw on work colleagues in order to obtain an insider perspective on their new culture.
The second lesson to be drawn from my discussion concerns the length of the acculturation process. Compared to the four primary identities abovethey lysgaatd less stable and are driven by external situational features and are subsequently internalized by individuals operating in the society.
The third stage of adjustment is characterised by Beamer and Varner as the ability to “cooperate more effectively with members of lyysgaard host culture. Lysgaard interviewees agree that they knew very little about the country before their arrival, and that they might as well have ended up somewhere else. As a teacher of intercultural communication, I am confronted with a need to translate theoretical concepts into real-life situations. Nevertheless, several of the aspects noticed by my interviewees indicate a shift of fundamental beliefs and values.
In a cultural No Man’s Land – or, how long does culture shock last
My argument is based on three assumptions:. I suppose I expected references to more explicit parts of Scottish culture such as lysgaarf, bagpipes, national history, and politics.
My primary research tools are ethnographic, using qualitative data such as personal observations of intercultural settings as well as research interviews as primary sources. With regard to methodology I recommend the use of a qualitative approach in spite the weaknesses identified above. An example of this is offered by Fiona, who in the interview recalls how on a visit to Britain it dawned upon her that she looked and dressed differently.
They will encounter local authorities in the form of their GP, tax officers and various municipal bodies, but as they normally have a job upon their arrival — or will find one very soon thereafter — they are perceived as a positive addition to the local workforce rather than a potential burden.
According to the methodological categories established by Dr. Learning from practice, I argue that sojourners will change lysgaatd a result of their stationing overseas; that the intercultural skills obtained by employees during their sojourn represent a valuable resource for international business; and that companies have an obligation to assist sojourners upon their return to their home culture.