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Apart from this geographical distribution, there is no marked difference between these titles, when used for imperial priestesses, and they are best regarded as synonyms. Ill, Co 10 near Corfinium in Italy, 1st cent. Order of the Minister of Agriculture and Food Economy on the prohibition of selling real estate by persons receiving farmers’ social security pensions or annuities, and on devolution of such real estate to the public treasury Text No.

The meaning of the remaining additions is less self-evident. Against the inscriptions of imperial priestesses in my corpus more than 1, inscriptions are known of male imperial priests in the same area and period.

His father was the first to receive Roman citizenship, see Les Flava de Cillium. If a priestess was normally elected for a year, what does the addition perpetua mean? Some even held the most prestigious imperial priesthood: Gradel uses this theory to account for the fact that he found hundred priests of deified emperors in Italy outside Rome against only fifty-six for the living emperor, whereas in his view the imperial cult in Italy focused on the living emperor.

Most local priestesses are mere names to us, and so are their husbands and fathers that are sometimes mentioned in the inscriptions. But what was the relation between the cult of the individual empress and that of the other female members of the family? Apart from this, the notion that a priest and priestess of the imperial cult were, as a rule, husband and wife is contradicted by their numbers. There seem to be three reasons: Also applicable to certain other categories of persons such as self-employed workers, lawers, artists, diplomats, etc.

Modern confusion as to the status of imperial priestesses and the nature of their office appears to be rooted in a mistaken identification between the Republican flaminate in Rome and the priesthood of the imperial cult in Italy and the western provinces. The words Aug ustae or divae Aug ustaewhich were sometimes added to the title flaminica or sacerdos, seem to point to the cult of the living or the deified empress separately. AE94 It.


Polonia – – Reglamento, Decreto, Orden, Ordenanza Order [of 23 March ] of the Minister of Health and social Welfare concerning methods and frequency of conducting measures of substances endangering health in the work environment Text No. North edsPagan Priests. The cult of earlier apparently fell soon into disuse; at least, after a certain time no priestesses seem to have been appointed to look after their cult.

Because of the wealth it required, a priesthood of the imperial cult is often regarded as proof that the person in question belonged to the decurial or equestrian elite.

Polonia – – Reglamento, Decreto, Orden, Ordenanza Order of the Minister of Industry and Commerce concerning occupational safety and health in the construction and repair of floating works Text No. The Agency is aimed at promoting employment creation in the agricultural sector and developing infrastructure for the agricultural production. The addition is not restricted to certain provinces or regions though the title flaminica perpetua is especially frequent in the African provinces: In any case, by its careful wording distinguishing the wife of a provincial flamen from a flaminica the law the theory that a flaminica was by definition the wife of a flamen.

Special attention is paid to the titles used for them flaminica and sacerdos and the various additions to these titles, their geographical and chronological distribution, and the relationship between these titles and the status and priestly function of the priestesses in question.

As we have seen, both the living empress and her immediate predecessor could have a priestess serving her cult individually.

At first sight, this view is confirmed by the occasional flamen that was married to a flaminica. Inter alia provides that the occupational therapy centres aim at the social rehabilitation of disabled persons with a partial ability to work.

Since he served the imperial cult at the provincial level, organising the gladiatorial games at the yearly festival in the provincial capital and presiding over the annual meeting of the concilium provinciae, his priesthood was, by far, the most prestigious; a provincial flamen was usually of equestrian, or at 35512 of decurial, rank.

Order of devreto Minister of Labour and Social Policy concerning the organisation, methods and scope of action of the National Employment Office and voivodship and regional employment offices Text No.

Flaminicae of the imperial cult were. Yet, in view of the evidence, the notion appears to be utterly unfounded: For the duties, privileges and restrictions of the flaminica Dialis, see Aul. Without further addition, the most common title for an imperial priestess, seems to have been a generic title for a municipal priestess of the imperial.

Priestesses of the Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Titles and Function – Persée

Social status and social mobility The other additions to the titles of imperial priests and priestesses such as perpetua, prima, and provinciae do not refer to the object of their cult, but to the status and prestige of the priestesses, or perhaps to the novelty or duration of their office. The third title, pontifex, for a priest of the imperial cult is found almost exclusively in the Spanish province Baetica, see R.


By contrast, in the city of Rome no priestesses of the imperial cult have so far been found, which may have contributed to their neglect in modern studies of Roman religion. Polity and Society in Roman Pompeii, Rome,p. Apart from the fact that Livia was given the title sacerdos and not flaminica and was not bound by any of the restrictions which governed the life of the flaminica Dialis, the priesthood of the flaminica Dialis depended on that of her husband, the flamen Dialis: Finally, some of the imperial cult were married to husbands who held a different municipal.

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For other ages at death mentioned on epitaphs of priestesses of the imperial cult: Decrero social security scheme for farmers and their families includes employment accident, sickness and maternity benefits as well as retirement pension. Therefore, the additive sense seems more likely. Sphere of action So far, the epigraphic evidence shows that priestesses of the imperial cult held their priesthood in their own right.

The provincial priesthood formed “the culmination of a local career in the provinces” Fishwick, o. Burnand, “De la servitude au flaminat: However, there is no evidence for this theory and the main – that most inscriptions mentioning priests of deified emperors can be dated within a generation after the death of the emperor in question – is not convincing.

Women’s priestly titles show the same additions as those of male imperial priests and, like them, priestesses could have siec than one priesthood in different towns, but only rarely served for more than one year in the same town.

Geographical distribution Table 1: My corpus includes inscriptions of priestesses of the imperial cult in the Latin-speaking Western provinces only.

Pflaum, “Les flamines de l’Afrique Romaine”, 54p. Order of the Minister of Industry and Commerce concerning occupational safety and health in facilities concerned with the production, transport and distribution of gas or gaseous fuels and the construction and assembly of gas pipes text No.

In fecreto of the analogy between the republican and imperial flaminate some scholars point to the lex de flamonio provinciae Narbonensis established by Vespasian in which the privileges and restrictions of the provincial flamen and his wife are regulated.