▫La cirugía busca minimizar los factores de riesgo que acechan al Norwood estadio I Fontan atriopulmonar: Conexión de AD con TP para q sangre de. The Fontan procedure or Fontan–Kreutzer procedure is a palliative surgical procedure used in from their existing blood supply (e.g. a shunt created during a Norwood procedure, a patent ductus arteriosus, etc.). Leval, Marc R de ( ). d Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular, Hospital Infantil Universitario Virgen del Between October and June , 42 children underwent the Norwood.

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Although the results obtained in the last years have improved, 2,3 it continues to have a high mortality. Progress in Pediatric Cardiology. Primary sternum closure was also a risk factor in the sense that the children that underwent such a procedure in the operating room had a higher mortality, both intrasurgically Table 6 as postsurgically in the PICU Table 3. Accepted for publication March 29, We did not find significant differences between the mortality in the PICU and the surgical technique employed groups 1 and 2 Table 7probably due to the low number of patients currently included in group 2.

The intervention was made at an mean age of This fact is related in part with the introduction of a modification in the classical Norwood technique, consisting in the substitution of the fistula for a tube connecting the right ventricle with the pulmonary artery. Guillermo Kreutzer from Buenos Aires, Argentina b. Mortality in the PICU was also greater, although the differences in this case were not significant Table 3.

Both a long cardiopulmonary bypass time and primary sternal closure were associated with increased mortality.

Medical treatment was based on a strategy of pharmacological reduction of the pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance. However, this results in hypoxiaso the fenestration may eventually need to be closed by an interventional cardiologist.

The surgical technique used in them to reconstruct the aortic arc was the terminoterminal suture without aortic graft. The future, cirugiq still a ways off, will probably be the undertaking of a single procedure in the catheterism lab. Therefore, children with high pulmonary vascular resistance may not tolerate a Dde procedure.


Síndrome del corazón izquierdo hipoplástico

Three patients died in the perioperative period and three died in the follow up two, four and 10 months after the procedure. Cardiac arrest with profound hypothermia was used in all and regional cerebral perfusion was used in nine.

Fontan procedure is also contraindicated in those with pulmonary artery hypoplasia, patients with left ventricular dysfunction and significant mitral insufficiency. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 17th ed. Sedation and analgesia were obtained with midazolam and fentanyl, and we only resorted to the neuromuscular paralysis with vecuronium in children whose sternal closure was deferred. The reduction in time of ECC and the fact of choosing a systematically differed closing of the sternum in the Norwod have contributed to a better postsurgical evolution and, therefore, could increase survival.

Pericardium Pericardiocentesis Pericardial window Pericardiectomy Myocardium Cardiomyoplasty Dor procedure Septal myectomy Ventricular norwopd Alcohol septal ablation Conduction system Maze procedure Cox maze and minimaze Catheter ablation Cryoablation Radiofrequency ablation Pacemaker insertion Left atrial appendage occlusion Cardiotomy Heart transplantation.

Gleen and Fontan procedures were completed in five and one patients, respectively. The diagnosis was done in utero in eight patients. Two cases had respiratory insufficiency that made weaning off ventilation difficult, finding a dynamic obstruction of the left main bronchus by means of fibrobronchoscopy. This is also the reason a Fontan procedure cannot be done immediately after birth; the pulmonary vascular resistance is high in utero and takes months to drop.

The time of aortic clamping only was significant when we compared it with the surgical technique, so that it was superior in children of group 1 Table 7. The treatment is palliative and it is made in several stages, of which the intervention of Norwood 1 is the first. Our results with the Norwood procedure are similar to other series. The association between each individual variable and mortality was investigated.

Impedance norwodo Ballistocardiography Cardiotocography.

The age and the weight of the children at the moment of the intervention did not have a significant statistical relationship with mortality Table 3. In a similar manner to other authors, 12 we have also proven that time on ECC is a risk factor for early mortality in the PICU, in the sense that the longer the time on ECC, the most likely the patient will die. The Fontan procedure dw palliative — not curative — but in many cases it can result in normal or near-normal growth, development, exercise tolerance, and good quality of life.


When the pressure in the veins is high, some of the oxygen-poor blood can escape through the fenestration to relieve the pressure. In relation to the surgical technique, up until some years ago some authors 16 reconstructed the aortic arch without a homograft; in this way, it was thought, long term growth of the new aorta was benefited without any residual stenosis.

The degree of function of survivors was determined during their last check-up in the outpatient clinic of cardiology. In most of our patients, nitric oxide was suspended on the third day, and ventilatory support was suspended between the third and ninth day.

This fact produces an increase of the dead space, which is translated in a difficulty to exhale carbon dioxide. To address this risk, some surgeons make a fenestration from the venous circulation into the atrium.

Síndrome del corazón izquierdo hipoplástico | American Heart Association

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. In our hospital, the first Norwood intervention was made in5 and in we incorporated the Sano modification, based on the good results obtained in others centers. In addition, the relation between hospital mortality and cardiac anatomy, surgical technique, surgical times, and deferred sternum closure were studied. Norwood procedure is used as the first stage in the palliative treatment of the hypoplastic heart syndrome and can be used, with some technical modifications, in other forms of univentricular heart with aortic stenosis or hypoplasia.

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