Ästhetik Als Philosophie der Sinnlichen Erkenntnis Eine Interpretation der ” Aesthetica” A. G. Baumgartens Mit Teilweiser Wiedergabe des Lateinischen Textes. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (–), as previously mentioned, introduced the The first volume of his Aesthetica appeared in Aesthetica. by Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten. Publication date Usage Public Domain Mark Topics bub_upload. Publisher Kleyb.

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Views Read Edit View history. With the development of art as a commercial enterprise linked to the rise of a nouveau riche class across Europe, the purchasing of art inevitably led to the question, “what is good art? This article abides by terms baumgartsn the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. The contrast between perfection or imperfection in the content of a representation and the enjoyable activity of the aesfhetica in representing that content is the heart of Mendelssohn’s theory, so we can interrupt our catalogue of all four of the axes of perfection that he recognizes for some comments on this contrast.

Help us improve this article! In the case of natural objects, this order is comprised by both the internal organization of an object to suit its overall goal and the part that the particular object plays in nature as a whole. Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartenborn July alesander,BerlinPrussia [Germany]—died May 26,Frankfurt an der OderGerman philosopher and educator who coined the term aesthetics and established this discipline as a distinct field of philosophical inquiry.

Nevertheless, Baumgarten believed that there was more to aestyetica said about the way that ideas appear to us in sensation and perception than that they were simply a confused version of ideas that might be apprehended purely intellectually. When we aesthetiva to Wolff’s conceptions of the perfections of the particular forms of art that he mentions, we will see that he always has in mind both formal and substantive perfections for any particular art.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Philosophically one could say that it is a piece of another possible world Schriftenp. But his basic point remains: Perfection along any of these axes is a potential source of pleasure in the experience of an object, and the effect of these sources of pleasure can be additive, each increasing our pleasure in the same object.

In this instant everything must be rich in thoughts and so full of meaning that every accompanying concept makes its own contribution to the required meaning. Extracts from various Authors inremained unpublished during Herder’s lifetime. Some variant of this response to Plato was the core of aesthetics through much of subsequent gottlien history, and indeed continued to be central to aesthetics through much of the twentieth century.

In the Morning Lessons Mendelssohn does not emphasize that the free play of the mind has a pleasing effect on the body, but he does in his earlier writings, so let us now return to this third item in Mendelssohn’s catalogue of the axes of perfection in aesthetic experience.


What does this mean in practice? Baumgarten has not yet introduced the idea that aesthetic pleasure comes from the free play of our mental powers, but he has relaxed the grip of the assumption that aesthetic response is a straightforward case of cognition. Just as little as the philosopher can discover the appearances of nature, without examples from experience, merely through a priori inferences, so little can he establish appearances in the beautiful world, if one can thus express oneself, without diligent observations.

However, although he eventually held the professorship in logic and metaphysics in Leipzig, Gottsched was also the professor of poetry, and by far the greatest part of his boundless energy was devoted to literature and philology. No keywords specified fix it. Before that was to happen, however, the ideas, emphasized more by Meier although already suggested by Baumgarten, that art aims at arousing our emotions and at the pleasurable activity of the mind, and at the former as an instance of the latter, would be further developed by an intervening generation of German thinkers.

Herz was born to a Jewish scribe and his wife in Berlin inand received a traditional talmudic education. Baumgarten’s list of synonyms may be confusing, for it includes both traditional and novel designations of his subject matter. It is striking how Mendelssohn writes here in gerundives and infinitives rather than in substantives in order to convey a sense of mental activity: The living, embodied truth of the three-dimensional space of angles, of form and volume, is not something we can learn through sight.

Les Etudes Philosophiques 17 2: Thus far, Gottsched has not made special use of Wolffian terms.

They are doing so on the basis of a false hope conceived by that superb analyst Baumgarten. This is Marcus Herz —Herder’s junior by three years. On the contrary, the argument of the essay on Shakespeare is that the best art of different times and places—for example, the theater of Sophocles and that of Shakespeare—must differ superficially precisely because at the deepest level they are committed to the same principle— the truthful imitation of nature alexajder have different natures to imitate.

But while emphasizing that the poet aims to create a vivid response in us, in gittlieb a vivid emotional response, Lessing fails to mention Mendelssohn’s point that we also need to retain some awareness of the artificiality rather than reality of the artistic depiction of persons and actions in order to maintain the distance necessary to allow us to enjoy the emotions evoked by art rather than being overwhelmed by them into actual suffering. Meier thereby prepared the way for the tremendous influence that British aesthetics would have in Germany by the end of the s.


Meier actually responded directly to Gottsched in a number of polemics, but since his views were based largely—although not entirely—on Baumgarten’s, it will be better to treat them together than to treat Meier now. Indeed, Meier continues that it is by arousing our passions that art achieves its goal of a clear but confused, that is, manifold but densely packed, cognition.

Alexandre Gottlieb Baumgarten, Aesthetica – PhilPapers

The real object of pleasure then becomes the activity of one’s own representational state, manifested in the form of sentiment, that is caused by the perfection of the beautiful object.

The other alternative would be for the new aesthetic[s] to share the name with speculative philosophy. Previous Alexander Gordon Laing. So the immensity which inspires us with awe must also be interpreted as a manifestation of perfection. InMendelssohn published Phaedo: It is however composed of many parts, and these and their composition are aimed at the hands displaying correctly the hours and their parts.

The main thrust of the fourth Grovebuilding upon Herder’s insistence that aesthetics must employ the methods of both Aristotle and Kames in order to reach Baumgartian conclusions, is that recognition of the distinctions among our senses will explain the variety of both forms of art and forms of aesthetic response. Although the charge that Baumgarten simply began with definitions may seem a fair critique of his early Meditations on PoetryHerder must have felt that in his larger and more mature Aesthetica Baumgarten did support his definitions by his extensive examples.

Aesthetica : Scripsit Alexander Gottlieb Bavmgarten

And if experience of the arts can reveal important moral truths, then it can also be important to the development of morality, the other pole of Plato’s baumgarteb. Kant will subsequently reject the assumption that we baumgarteh have a conception of the purpose of an object in order to make a pure judgment of beauty about it. His soul speaks to it, not as if his soul sees, but as if it touches, as if it feels.

Johann Gottfried Herder — is most often remembered for his philosophy of history, expounded with relative brevity in his work This Too a Philosophy of History for the Education of Humanity and at great length in his Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanitypublished from to Nelson Ramos marked it as to-read Oct 25, Winckelmann’s History of Ancient Artpublished nine years after the essay on imitation, reaffirms his general commitment to contemporary aesthetics as well as his particular emphasis on a certain kind of mental condition as the ultimate source of physical beauty.

Throughout the remainder of the treatise, both conceptions of perfection are at work.